The bit that is new here begins “These Protestants…” and is, in my view, one of the more important passages in the treatise due to its discussion of duplex iustitia, “twofold justice/righteousness,” the one imputed (in this instance he uses the verb donare, but elsewhere imputare) and the other infused or imparted (“poured out”), with the two carefully distinguished rather than collapsed into one another even though they are granted simultaneously to the sinner.
The promise of God, moreover, which it [i.e., faith] firmly believes–and for that reason conceives trust [fiduciam]–is (as blessed Thomas says in the First Part of the Second Part), that God remits sins and justifies the wicked through the mystery of Christ. For He Himself became the author of salvation for all those who believe in Him. 1 Therefore this motion of faith, after the renunciation of sin, raises the mind to God and turns [convertit] the soul [animum] to Him. When [the soul] has been turned, God, pouring his own Spirit [into it], heals, sanctifies, justifies, adopts it for a son through the Spirit of his own Son, through whom, when He has been poured into our hearts, we cry, “Abba, Father.” 2 In addition, he grants to us, together with the Spirit of Christ, Christ Himself; and all his justice–for free [gratis], out of his own mercy–he makes ours, he imputes [imputat] to us who have put on Christ.
Meanwhile, however, while the soul is thus being prepared 3 by the Lord and prepares itself, since this preparation does not come about in a moment of time, except in the case of a miracle, as happened to the Apostle Paul, if the opportunity should be present he who is being turned [converted] does good works and refrains from evil. Nevertheless, justification and sanctification is not rendered 4 for works–as Paul says, as blessed Augustine says in countless passages, and as Thomas [says] expressly in the First Part of the Second Part–but is owed to faith, 5 not because we merit justification by faith and because we believe, but because we receive it 6 by faith; for thus the Apostle says in the Letter to the Galatians: “receiving the promise of the Spirit by faith.” Likewise in the Letter to the Romans: “through whom we have access into this grace by faith.” In the Letter to the Hebrews: “It is necessary that the one approaching God believe,” because by believing do we approach this access. That which the Apostle calls “receiving” blessed Thomas in the Third Part names “application,” 7 saying that the passion of Christ is, as it were, a common 8 medicine, which each one applies to himself by faith and the sacraments 9 of faith
These Protestants name [it] “apprehension”–not with the meaning that you suppose in the letter given to me, which obviously pertains to the knowledge of the intellect, but with the meaning set out above: obviously, by that meaning [of the term] we say that we “apprehend” that thing at which we arrive and which we reach 10 after our movement. 11
We reach, moreover, a twofold justice: the one inherent in us, by which we begin to be just, and are made partakers of the divine nature, and have charity poured out in our hearts; the other, however, not inherent, but bestowed 12 on us together with Christ–I mean the justice of Christ, and all his merit. Each one is bestowed on us at the same time, and we reach each through faith. (De iustificatione, pp. 590-1)