Archive Authors E.J. Hutchinson Nota Bene Reformed Irenicism

“There Is No Flesh in His Obdurate Heart”

That is Frederick Douglass’ description, borrowed from the evangelical Anglican poet William Cowper, of the man who is not moved by the music of the slave’s lament.

In chapter 6 of My Bondage and My Freedom, Douglass gives an account of the emotional and spiritual power of the song of the grief-stricken. Though slaves were expected to offer lip-service to the “house farm,” and so did, they mixed in with it the voice of their own agony–of their own “crushed souls.” To Douglass, this account of the damage done to the inner man by the slave system was a more powerful apologetic against it than any account of only physical torment. Anyone with human feeling, he thought, could not fail to be moved by these “wild notes”–which were “not always merry because they were wild,” in opposition to what is perhaps the popular conception of the Dionysian–to despise the “dehumanizing character of slavery,” as Douglass was himself.

The music of lament has always and will always give voice to the “crushed soul of the downtrodden,” as the Psalms and their continued use powerfully testify, as well as many forms of folk music–music of a “low” register that frequently reaches the greatest heights of expressive eloquence.

Slaves are generally expected to sing as well as to work. A silent slave is not liked by masters or overseers. “Make a noise,” “make a noise,” and “bear a hand,” are the words usually addressed to the slaves when there is silence amongst them. This may account for the almost constant singing heard in the southern states. There was, generally, more or less singing among the teamsters, as it was one means of letting the overseer know where they were, and that they were moving on with the work. But, on allowance day, those who visited the great house farm were peculiarly excited and noisy. While on their way, they would make the dense old woods, for miles around, reverberate with their wild notes. These were not always merry because they were wild. On the contrary, they were mostly of a plaintive cast, and told a tale of grief and sorrow. In the most boisterous outbursts of rapturous sentiment, there was ever a tinge of deep melancholy. I have never heard any songs like those anywhere since I left slavery, except when in Ireland. There I heard the same wailing notes, and was much affected by them. It was during the famine of 1845-6. In all the songs of the slaves, there was ever some expression in praise of the great house farm; something which would flatter the pride of the owner, and, possibly, draw a favorable glance from him.

I am going away to the great house farm,
O yea!  O yea!  O yea!
My old master is a good old master,
O yea!  O yea!  O yea!

This they would sing, with other words of their own improvising—jargon to others, but full of meaning to themselves. I have sometimes thought, that the mere hearing of those songs would do more to impress truly spiritual-minded men and women with the soul-crushing and death-dealing character of slavery, than the reading of whole volumes of its mere physical cruelties. They speak to the heart and to the soul of the thoughtful. I cannot better express my sense of them now, than ten years ago, when, in sketching my life, I thus spoke of this feature of my plantation experience:

I did not, when a slave, understand the deep meanings of those rude, and apparently incoherent songs. I was myself within the circle, so that I neither saw or heard as those without might see and hear. They told a tale which was then altogether beyond my feeble comprehension; they were tones, loud, long and deep, breathing the prayer and complaint of souls boiling over with the bitterest anguish. Every tone was a testimony against slavery, and a prayer to God for deliverance from chains. The hearing of those wild notes always depressed my spirits, and filled my heart with ineffable sadness. The mere recurrence, even now, afflicts my spirit, and while I am writing these lines, my tears are falling. To those songs I trace my first glimmering conceptions of the dehumanizing character of slavery. I can never get rid of that conception. Those songs still follow me, to deepen my hatred of slavery, and quicken my sympathies for my brethren in bonds. If any one wishes to be impressed with a sense of the soul-killing power of slavery, let him go to Col. Lloyd’s plantation, and, on allowance day, place himself in the deep, pine woods, and there let him, in silence, thoughtfully analyze the sounds that shall pass through the chambers of his soul, and if he is not thus impressed, it will only be because “there is no flesh in his obdurate heart.”

By E.J. Hutchinson

E.J. Hutchinson is Assistant Professor of Classics at Hillsdale College.